Encyclopedia of E-Car Driver
PS, Nm, Vmax - some terms are the electric car the same as for conventional cars but it is also important to learn a few new words.
A real revolution in mobility has the electric car has not yet been triggered. However, the electricity will be visible after all, slowly in the streets and on the farms of the dealers. And with them seep some new terms in the vocabulary of motorists. A small vocabulary index.
A rechargeable storage for electrical energy in an electrochemical basis. In a narrower sense it is meant only with accumulator or battery, a single memory cell, but also the interconnected memory elements are generally linguistically as they occur in the electric car as a " battery " means. Also, the term " battery " is this consistently, even if it was used historically or technical language into something more limited sense and will. Frequently in the meaning of " non-rechargeable battery." Ultimately, one can understand "battery" as a generic term, fall under the next non-rechargeable batteries also store up. In many cases, the two terms are used interchangeably today, only when specifically the recharging capability should be emphasized, the more accurate " battery " is recommended.
If the unit of electric current (A). If you look at the flow of current analog and flow of water through a pipe before, corresponds to the current strength of the pipe diameter. The water pressure could be equated with the power voltage ( V). Both factors together decide how high is the performance. So, ultimately, how much energy to power a water wheel or motor is available.
Stands for " Combined Charging System" and the German version of the fast charge connector for direct current with high loading capacities up to 170 kW. It only comes as a solid charging cable before at stations. He can currently be used only by very few vehicles, such as the VW E-Up. The competition standard is the CHAdeMO system of a Japanese consortium, which is supported primarily by Japanese and French cars.
Abbreviation for "Charge de Move" and name of the Japanese fast-charging plug system that was developed by the energy company Tepco and the car manufacturers Nissan, Mitsubishi, Toyota and Subaru. The typical charging power is 50 kW, but higher values are also possible. Competition standard is the German CCS system, both plug types are not compatible.
In a narrower sense the term for a battery-powered electric car with or without a range extender. In the broader context, based on their Engine and fuel cell vehicles electric cars. Also, plug-in hybrids are often - slammed the e-cars - especially in official statistics.
Should make charging electric cars easier in the future. Instead connect the car to an electrical outlet, it must be parked only on a magnetic coil which charges moves over a counterpart in the vehicle floor the battery. Theoretical works on the process accordingly equipped lanes while driving. The loading capacity is up to 11 kW in the range of normal AC charging stations. Currently, there are practically only the technology but in field tests of automobile manufacturers. When it can be used over a large area, is still unclear.
A unit of measurement for energy. With a kWh of electricity can be put at room temperature for cooking a bucket of water. The usual capacity of an electric car batteries is currently around 24 kWh, such as the Nissan Leaf and the VW e-Golf. The power consumption of the two models is 15 kWh per 100 kilometers in the leaf, 12.7 kW for the Gulf. However, the theoretical range of the two models is not directly derivable from the battery capacity ( unlike the conventional car, where the range is from consumption and fuel level results ), since power is recovered from the recuperation of braking energy while driving.
The loading capacity is the most important criterion for how long the e-car has to fill-up the grid. One household outlet provides a charging power of 3.5 kW is available, a normal charging station or a wallbox usually around 10 to 22 kW, a fast charger up to 50 kW, 62.5 kW ( CHAdeMO ), 120 kW ( Tesla Supercharger ) or 170 kW (CCS). To load a present day electric car battery with a capacity of 24 kWh, so he would have - calculated simply - about seven hours on the household power source while it would be full on Supercharger after a little more than ten minutes. In practice, the load times are but longer. Among other things, because long each car can not use the functionality provided by the charging station and power completely because with increasing battery level decreases the loading speed. Furthermore, will be loaded to fast charging stations out of consideration for the battery life only up to a level of 80 percent.
In principle there are two different types of charging stations. Those with normal alternating current ( 400 V, up to 63 A) and a charging power of typically 11 kW. Individual stations can also supply up to 44 kW. In addition, rapid charging stations, there are direct current ( up to 450 V, up to 150 A) and charging capacities ranging from less than 20 kW and 60 kW. In the private sector beyond so-called wall boxes are used, which usually provide normal 230 V household current, but provide different from the normal socket permanently even 16 amps. The price for the individual charging stations is between about 500 euros ( wallbox ) and up to 20,000 euros ( fast charger ).
Today's current battery technology. Compared with lead and nickel-metal hydride batteries used previously, they offer a higher energy density. In addition, they have no memory effect. While their capacity for mobile phones and laptops today is sufficient without further ado, they come with the car quickly reach their limits. But basic problem is the high price of current between 250 and 500 Euro per kWh. In a normal electric car battery alone costs accordingly at least 6,000 euros. However, the cost was the beginning of the decade at 500 euro per kWh, up to the new decade they shall fall to values between 150 and 100 € / kWh depending on the respondent experts. The prices of the batteries, however, vary depending on the energy density of the cells, so that the above values are only rough.
Regarded as the most hopeful successor to the lithium-ion batteries. Compared with these offers by the partial waiver of the heavy medium at the electrodes a large weight advantage, so that the power density per kilogram increases. This much longer lengths in electric cars would be possible. However, the mass production is still far off, experts expect significantly after 2030.
The now common type of electric motors in the car and in many household items. "Permanent energized " means that the so-called motor permanent magnets are used, no electromagnets. If the latter are used, it is an electrically excited synchronous machine (ESM ). In the automotive industry this date does not matter, since it is the PSM inferior in almost every way except for the efficiency. But with many manufacturers it is likely to be a strategic alternative in the drawer because it contains less of the rare and to be purchased only from abroad rare earth metals.
The recovery of kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost during braking in the form of heat, is not a privilege of the electric car. Cars with start-stop system for years already use the technology. Is used during the current obtained in the conventional car for unloading the generator / alternator, it comes with e - car directly benefit the drive. However, only a part of the braking energy flows back as a charging energy in the battery, a study of the DEKRA calls, for example, the Citroen C-Zero has a value of 56 percent.
In general, a small internal combustion engine that does not drive the wheels with his power, but a power generator that charges the batteries while driving again. So should be possible even after the end of the tapped power at the outlet supply further advancement. This is however only a kind of last resort, since the engine is indeed designed to be relatively efficient, but in the end works just not very efficient. Currently set in Germany only the Opel Ampera and the Chevrolet Volt default on such a technique. On the BMW i3, a range extender to request the option list will be booked.
At the household outlet almost every electric car can load. Then it becomes difficult. At least in Germany has for public charging stations Meneckes the so-called type-2 connector enforced, which is shipped with most electric cars as charging cable. In other European countries, however, other types of connectors in use. Even in this country are not uniform, the DC plug for quick charging stations. While the German manufacturers rely on the CCS system, use Japanese and French for their models the CHAdeMO standard. The types are incompatible. But future fast charging stations are designed to provide outlets for both systems.
A kind of part-time electric car, mixed with a hybrid vehicle. On board there is usually a comparatively small battery that can be recharged at the socket and allows a pure electric range of about 50 kilometers. After that, the car continues with hybrid drive. The plug-in hybrid drive is considered as a bridging technology until the introduction of more powerful batteries, which also enables pure electric cars a practical range. For car manufacturers, they are not least interesting because they achieve very good CO2 levels in the NEDC cycle, as is started with a full battery, any carbon dioxide emissions are not taken into account in the preparation of the required electricity. For the customer, they are more attractive than pure electric cars at similar prices as the range problem is bridged to the internal combustion engine.
An electric motor, which is not centrally located in the vehicle, but directly on the wheel, he was already at the beginning of the 20th Century when electric cars used as the Lohner - Porsche, but disappeared from the mass-produced car, because its high weight makes for unfavorable spot for trouble driving comfort among others. This is not currently collected by the numerous advantages. These include the design envelope in the car body, the possible waiver of drive shafts and the gain in driving dynamics and safety due to the possible wheel-selective regulation of the driving force.
The power consumption is the same lab test determined as of a diesel or petrol engine. It is specified but not in liters per 100 kilometers, but usually in kilowatt-hours per 100 kilometers. The CO2 emissions is given as zero, the emissions from electricity production are not considered. Most efficient mass-produced electric car is currently the VW E-Up with a consumption of 11.7 kWh per 100 km. If you want to compare with current fuel consumption, can the best on the cost: the kilowatt hour cost in 2013 in the German average for households around 29 cents. 100 kilometers in the E-Up cost therefore 3.39 euros, in Benzinermodell ( fuel consumption 4.1 liters, liters Price E10: 1,49 € ) there are 5.96 euros.
Is the unit of electrical voltage ( V). If you look at the flow of current analog and flow of water through a pipe before, corresponds to the voltage to water pressure. The current intensity (A) could be equated with the pipe diameter. Both factors together decide how high is the performance. So, ultimately, how much energy to power a water wheel or motor is available.